Bukit Tigapuluh Landscape
Bukit Tigapuluh Landscape is precisely located in the biodiversity hotspot of Sumatra with its rare ecosystem and has special kinds of uniqueness in comparison to other national parks that share the same island where are predominantly located at either higher -altitude areas or coastal regions. However, Bukit Tigapuluh National Park posseses its own uniqueness; this constitutes tropical rainforests which are located on hilly lowland areas.
There are two endemic charismatic species; those are Sumatran tiger and Sumatran Elephant, as well as one reintroduction charismatic species (Sumatran orangutan). Besides, other protected animals including otters, clouded leopards, and tapir are also presence.
The compositions of wildlife species found in the buffer zone of Bukit Tigapuluh National Park (BTNP) are relatively similar to those in BTNP. However, it is estimated that the buffer zone has a greater number of several key species, especially the Sumatran elephant, than the BTNP area. This is probably caused by topographic conditions as the area surrounding the national park is relatively flat and the abundance of food for elephants and tigers is high.
A fecal DNA population study by Alexander Markus Moßbrüker jointly with Ejkman Biomolecular Institute in 2011 stated that there were at least 143 elephant individuals were roaming in the 300,000 ha landscape. Coupled with that very large number and 80% habitat that had been changed into farming areas henceforth Bukit Tigapuluh is an important priority landscape.
YKSLI strives to support the government to issue local rules for the betterment of geographical locality and build an elephant conservation area / a corridor by involving multiple stakeholders without sacrificing Bukit Tigapuluh’s inhabitants. A series of Focus Group Discussions, ecological survey, societal-economical survey, and law research are conducted that will result in comprehensive policies.
In order to create this program, we have been and will be collaborating with several institutions as follows: Jambi Nature Conservation Agency (BKSDA), Indonesian Elephant Conservation Forum (FKGI), Our Tiger Forum (FHK), Asia Pulp & Paper, Barito Pacific. Tbk, Jambi University (UNJA) , and several related grass-root organizations.
YKSLI will also constantly strengthen the local government to execute implementation of the future regulations (development of elephant home range). Participative mapping is a must bringing out the natural potential of Bukit Tigapuluh environment and avoiding the horizontal conflict.
Wildlife living space should be paired with the law enforcement efforts. Combination of patrol teams, investigators, and informants will always be ready to monitor and to give appropriate acts to the illegal activities all year round.
Padang Sugihan Landscape
Padang Sugihan Landscape generally consists of shallow and medium-depth peat with the total area of 300,000 hectares. Almost all of the landscape is run by pulp & paper concessions, or in Indonesian Hutan Tanaman Industri. The 2015 Sumatra and Borneo haze disaster had spread even to neighboring countries. This incidence has proven the importance of sustainable management of peat areas. Every coordinated action to protect, conserve, and restore the still-viable genetic variations are insistently required.
This landscape is distinctive enough as it is an elephant living space whose was the result of massive translocation more than 30 years ago. During Ganesha Operation in the end of 1982, about 320 elephants are moved for 44 days from Air Sugihan to Padang Sugihan, which is 70 km apart to each other. The relocation of the elephants was a governmental effort to reduce the conflict in original elephant habitats that were being converted into transmigration villages.
Government also instituted a Game Reserve as well as an Elephant Training Centre at Sebokor in Padang Sugihan, Banyu Asin Regency, South Sumatra Province. Literature studies didn’t necessarily agree with each other regarding their total – guesstimated at around at 60-90 range. Moreover, the previous surveys have not yet consistently cover the elephant home-ranges.
In an effort to conserve the elephants of Padang Sugihan, YKSLI will focus on the scientific aspects aiming to compose a baseline on the total population and peatland elephant habitat’s situation. Age cohort, sex structure between male and female elephants, also affinity relationship among the herd can easily be read through fecal DNA survey methodologies.
The application of GPS Collar technology will be implemented as a monitoring commitment of elephant’s movement that shall represent the foraging behavior from time to time. Direct observations, assisted by aerial vehicle(s) will also help to describe the habitat ecology holistically and elephant’s natural inclination.
This primary database will become a foundation upon Sumatran Elephant Protection Strategy formulation not only pertaining to mitigation initiative of Human-Elephant Conflict but habitat enrichment on landscape level.